Diabetic encephalopathy is a quite unknown diabetes complication, characterized by electrophysiological, structural, neurochemical, and degenerative neuronal changes that lead to cognitive functioning limitations. The brain uses glucose as the main fuel to generate energy, primarily by oxidative metabolism. However, a chronic increase in blood glucose levels, even in the absence of DM symptoms, will eventually lead to brain damage. Thus, hyperglycemia-induced neurotoxicity is pointed out as one of the main causes of diabetic encephalopathy. Administration of GLP-1 analogues, PPAR--? agonists, C-peptide partially improves the condition of the IGF system in the brain and prevents neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of diabetic patients.
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